Diabetes is one of the world’s fastest growing chronic diseases with over 463 million adults (that’s 1 in 11 adults) around the world living with this chronic medical condition according to new data published in the 9th Edition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas. The latest Atlas also reports that the global prevalence of diabetes has reached 9.3%, with more than half (50.1%) of adults undiagnosed. A further 1.1 million children and adolescents under the age of 20, live with type 1 diabetes.
A decade ago, in 2010, the global projection for diabetes in 2025 was 438 million. With over five years still to go, that prediction has already been surpassed by 25 million. IDF estimates that there will be 578 million adults with diabetes by 2030, and 700 million by 2045.
Diabetes itself is not a major problem unless the blood glucose is uncontrolled and either rises too high or drops too low. If diabetes is not managed correctly (meaning blood glucose is not properly regulated), sufferers are likely to become progressively sick and debilitated.
Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes and nerves. For diabetics, maintaining blood sugar levels in a normal range — not too high or too low — is a lifelong challenge. Half of the people with diabetes die of cardiovascular disease (primarily heart disease and stroke), and 10–20 percent of people with diabetes die of kidney failure. Diabetes is also a major cause of blindness and lower limb amputation.
IDF estimates that approximately 4.2 million adults will die as a result of diabetes and its complications in 2019. This is equivalent to one death every eight seconds.
Flu season is quickly approaching and patients with diabetes are particularly at high risk of serious flu-related complications that can result in hospitalization or even death. Diabetics are twice as likely to die from heart disease or stroke as people without diabetes and six times more likely to be hospitalized.
Flu infection can cause changes in blood sugar and prevent people with diabetes from eating properly, which further affects blood glucose. Moreover, diabetes can make the immune system less able to fight infections. Diabetes patients with flu face very serious health risks such as ketoacidosis (a condition when the body cannot use sugar as a fuel source because there is no insulin or not enough insulin) and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS).
It is important for people with diabetes to follow the sick day guidelines if they become ill. Flu vaccination is especially important for people with diabetes because they are at high risk of developing serious flu complications. Flu vaccination has also been associated with reduced hospitalizations among people with diabetes (79%). Diabetics who get the flu should ask their doctors about prescription antiviral medications that can ease symptoms and shorten the duration of the illness. For best results, antivirals should be taken within 48 hours of the onset of flu symptoms.