Americans trust the competency of scientists, but they don’t trust scientists themselves. In particular, the general population is weary of scientists manipulating results to obtain bigger grants or pushing forth hidden agendas.

Credit: Susan Fiske, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

“Scientists have earned the respect of Americans but not necessarily their trust,” said lead author Susan Fiske, the Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology and professor of public affairs. “But this gap can be filled by showing concern for humanity and the environment. Rather than persuading, scientists may better serve citizens by discussing, teaching and sharing information to convey trustworthy intentions.”

The results, which were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) show that being competent is not the same as being trustworthy – especially when it comes to science. Humans are hardwired to split other people into two categories – friend or foe.

The fact that scientists can’t get their ideas across is a big problem, due to a simple misconception: that scientists are not warm.

“Science communicators arguably need to know about this possible type of response to them,” said Fiske. “From this view, scientists may seem not so warm. Their intent is not necessarily trusted and maybe even resented.”

This is likely one of the reasons why researchers consistently find it harder and harder to obtain grants. Interestingly enough, climate scientists are better trusted than moth scientists.

“People are not idiots. The public’s issue with science is not necessarily ignorance,” said Fiske. “So, the road to communicating climate science starts with some advantages. The public has some knowledge. Climate science communicators have effectively conveyed much evidence, which should encourage their continuing to educate and communicate. Just like other communication, science communication needs to continue to convey warmth and trustworthiness, along with competence and expertise.”

Teachers and nurses scored best in terms of warmth, while lawyers are believed to be competent but not trusted at all.

Journal Reference: Susan T. Fiske and Cydney Dupree. Gaining trust as well as respect in communicating to motivated audiences about science topics. September 15, 2014, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317505111

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  1. 1

    This is not a surprise – why? For example: In the scientific literature and in media the salt has political, and astonishing amount pseudo-science, but the pure scientific science of salt we can find only in traces. It’s time to understand (and to teach and to use) some very important but forgotten, ignored and censored knowledges and the consequences:
    1. “Anything that can go wrong not only will go wrong, it must go wrong, as decreed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics”
    2. “The profound nature of the Second Law manifests itself in every aspect of human existence.” “Entropy permeates all aspects of human existence.”
    3. “Every biochemical function requires a decrease in entropy, which can only be achieved by the infusion of energy into a life-sustaining system.”
    4. “Wherever we look, whatever we do, we must be acutely aware of the immutable laws of thermodynamics, especially the easily overlooked Second Law: Entropy.”
    5. The spontaneous diffusion of sodium ions into the cells and the diffusion of potassium ions out of the cells, continuously enhances the entropy (the disorder).
    6. The task of the continuously working sodium-potassium pump to keep constant the intracellular concentration of Na and K ions. These cellular pumps continuously use energy of ATP molecules.
    7. Excess sodium intake = excess diffusion = excess increase of entropy = excess work for pumps = excess energy expenditure against excess entropy => excess food consumption.
    8. But, all the rest of our vital processes (functional processes of the cells) receive less energy – because our capacity (to make energy from foods) is limited (see Kleiber’s Law).
    9. Everything work worse in our body, and this increases the incidence of all illnesses without any exception, our aging and devolution accelerate, etc.
    10. That is why salt (including other Na-compounds) is perfect food of entropy, and as I wrote on science20, this all is the Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome.
    The entropy is our number one public enemy on every level (physical and mental health, and social level) globally. Our history and our entire life is a continuous war against entropy. Even we nourish the entropy in our every cells, but the health scientists do not talk about this. And this is a fatal error. It’s time to change that, need action!

  2. 2

    The world’s IQ and the global health decline because we started and we speed our devolution. The real and ignored (but not political and not pseudo) science of salt: 10th edition of RDA (1989) 500 mg sodium per day (~ 1,23 g salt). This was the best recommendation ever! And now is: Die Ohnmacht der Allmächtigen. The humanity will die out within 250 years. The fats and the sugars are foods, and are sources of our energy. But entropy & sodium intakes = five decades global censorship, corruption, pseudoscience and lack of science. Excess salt (sodium) intake enhances the Entropy, this is the main risk factor of diabetes 1 & 2, overweight, NCDs, etc., and our devolution is a considerable risk factor (or more exactly a considerable fact) too. The law of entropy is the fiercest enemy of life and is our fiercest enemy too. The sodium-chloride isn’t food for humans, but is the perfect food of entropy. The spontaneous diffusion of sodium ions into the cells & the diffusion of potassium ions out of the cells, enhances the entropy. And every mmol excess sodium & the wrong Na/K ratio (& other wrong ratios) increases more the entropy in our every cells. The task of the continuously working Na-K pump to keep constant the intracellular concentration of Na & K ions. These cellular pumps continuously use energy of ATP molecules. Some consequences of high sodium intake, the specialists talk about these rarely or NEVER: Higher energy requirements (energy expenditure) for Na-K pump & kidney. All the rest of our vital processes (functional processes of the cells) receive less energy, because the metabolic rate (speed & capacity of enzyme reactions, oxygen supply, etc.) is limited (note: Kleiber’s Law). And the excess sodium intake do not increase the oxidative pathway. But, a critical surplus switches the anaerobic glycolysis on, in our every cells. This can be named: Sodium-Induced Cellular Anaerobic Glycolysis (SICAG). We produce cytotoxic lactic acid in our cells. Consequently, all of our vital processes & organs work worse (our heart, brain, regulating systems, immune system, etc.) and our cells are dying. We haven’t enough energy, and we haven’t enough time for the regeneration, because we enhances the entropy (by high salt intakes) in our every cells, day by day, again and again. We burn the candle on both of his ends (aerobic & anaerobic). The average lifetime of our cells shortens. Soon (faster) the telomeres run out. Our aging accelerates. We get sick often and we will die soon. Logical consequence: the unnecessary sodium increases the incidence of all illnesses without any exception, including even the genetic disorders, cancer, NCDs & infectious diseases. This is the ignored & censored (& no named) Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome (SIDS). Some people will be obese others not, some become diabetes others not, some have high BP others not (or later), etc. We are not (totally) uniform, but the entropy law finds our weak point (or points), and ravages mainly there, but increases the disorder in every cells in our body, and other risk factors and circumstances affect the individual consequences. The optimal ratios (Na/K ratio, the ratio between sum of alkaline metals and sum of polyvalent metals, etc.) are in the human milk. From every viewpoint, the human milk is an evolutionary perfect food, including the minimal energy expenditure of the Na-K pump & kidney of the babies = possible minimum entropy-transfer into the babies = healthy growing with maximal economy. Thus, the human milk is the perfect guide to calculate the optimal adult intakes. But the scientists do not deal with these facts. The entropy is nourished in us with the salt, but they do not talk and they do not write about this. They are treating only the symptoms of the Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome. The sodium recommendation is wrong, the education is wrong, the strategy against obesity & NCDs, etc. is wrong. Unfortunate, that these exist only in traces, in the scientific literature. And in some articles, even the traces are concealed and censored. I collected the most important evidences (the traces & lack of the traces) of the above ones. Some of the references:
    Saulo Klahr & Neal S. Bricker: Energetics of Anaerobic Sodium Transport by the Fresh Water Turtle Bladder. J Gen Physiol. 1965 March 1; 48(4): 571-580
    From the article: “The rate of anaerobic glycolysis, as determined by lactate formation, correlates well with the rate as determined by glycogen utilization. Using lactate formation as the index of anaerobic glycolysis, a linear relationship was observed between glycolysis and net anaerobic sodium transport.”
    Oops, sodium transport, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid, in 1965!
    Henningsen N.C.: The sodium pump and energy regulation: some new aspects for essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe overweight. Klinische Wochenschrift 63 Suppl 3:4-8. 1985.
    Abstract: “There is a growing evidence for that in modern societies the function of the cellular sodium-potassium pump (membrane-bound Na+ K+ ATPase) in several tissues in man cannot respond adequately to demands. This is not seen in any other free-living vertebrates on this earth. The clearly unphysiological very high intake of sodium-chloride (salt) and also alcohol is definitely playing an important role in the development of the common degenerating metabolic aberrations, e.g. essential hypertension, diabetes II and severe overweight, in man. The special and overall important role of the sodium-potassium pump for optimal cellular function and regeneration with special reference to the vascular tissues is presented and discussed.”
    Oops, the floor gas sodium-potassium pump (anaerobic turbo pump) is not enough, our cells are dying and we get sick. And this was clear in 1985!
    Markus Kleinewietfeld et al.: Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells. Nature 2013 doi:10.1038/nature11868
    From the article: “Although we have recently elucidated many of the genetic variants underlying the risk of developing autoimmune diseases 1, the significant increase in disease incidence, particularly of multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes, indicates that there have been fundamental changes in the environment that cannot be related to genetic factors. Diet has long been postulated as a potential environmental risk factor for this increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases in developed countries over recent decades 3. One such dietary factor, which rapidly changed along with the Western diet and increased consumption of processed foods or fast foods, is salt (NaCl) 4, 5. The salt content in processed foods can be more than 100 times higher in comparison to similar home-made meals 5, 6.”
    There are no really healthy populations in modern societies. The health conditions are deteriorating continuously. The world’s IQ decline. We started our devolution really. The entropy (the disharmony) is growing in the human genome. And all this – will accelerate. And we are the only “animal” who nourishes the entropy in his own body (by unnecessary sodium intakes and by wrong ratios between metals). Really the salt is the greatest blunder of the Homo Sapiens. And the science of salt is the number one perfect example onto the blunders, mistakes and irresponsibilities of the modern health sciences.
    More evidences & references are here & in comments below:
    & here:
    & here:

  3. 3

    The salt isn’t only a health problem. Toshimasa Osaka, Akiko Kobayashi, and Shuji Inoue: Thermogenesis induced by osmotic stimulation of the intestines in the rat. J Physiol. 2001 April 1; 532(Pt 1): 261–269.
    Some details from the article: “The energy expenditure induced by 20 % glucose was 2.79 +/- 0.45 kJ kg-0.75 for 3 h (Fig. 4). The RER (respiratory exchange ratio) increased from 0.82 +/- 0.01 to 0.92 +/- 0.01 at 115 min (Fig. 1B), suggesting the oxidation of carbohydrate … The metabolic rate rose during the 10 min infusion period of 3.6 % NaCl, stayed at a plateau level of ~ 205 J kg-0.75 min-1 between 35 and 120 min and then slowly declined but was still significantly higher than the baseline level at 3 h. The energy expenditure induced by 3.6 % NaCl was 3.49 +/- 0.33 kJ kg-0.75, … The RER did not change after infusion of any of the NaCl solutions (Fig. 2B). … The metabolic rate (M; in kJ) was calculated from measurements of O2 consumption and CO2 production according to the following equation: M = 15.8[O2]+ 5.2[CO2] (Kurpad et al. 1994), where [O2] and [CO2] are in litres at standard temperature and pressure. Values were corrected for metabolic body size (kg 0.75). The amount of energy expenditure induced by infusion of a solution was calculated as the total area of increase in metabolic rate over resting values.”
    These results proves clearly, the excess salt intake (the higher energy expenditure of the Na-K pump and kidney, against entropy) do not increase the oxidative pathway, in rats. (I notice it: the decrease would be logical? Yes, it is a logical consequence of the Sodium-Induced Disorder. And I think, the decrease is fact!) But a critical surplus switches the anaerobic glycolysis on, and produces lactic acid in every cells. We can calculate that this anaerobic energy (ATP) production consumed more glucose (from the glycogen reserve) than the total resting metabolism of the rats, on the oxidative pathway. Despite, that this anaerobic excess isn’t more than (about) 10-15 % of the total resting metabolism of the rats. And after the infusion of the highest dose of salt, 3 hours was not enough to return to the baseline level (to the level of resting metabolism). This is a real Sodium-Induced Cellular Anaerobic Thermogenesis (SICAT) or SICAG. From the effects of 0,9 % and 1,8 % NaCl infusion, I can suppose, anaerobic glycolysis begin in an average 70 kg adult from ~ 6-7 g dose of salt. I would dare to bet, that this was examined in similar (but oral) human experiments already, but where are the results? The oxygen consumptions (which are better than the RER) were not published in the article. Why? And what is the situation with the anaerobic energy production? How did they calculate it? Interesting questions, but Mr. Osaka did not answer my e-mail. The censorship’s fingerprints are clearly recognisable in the article. However this is a very valuable and very important work. Despite that nothing about entropy, energy expenditure of (floor gas – anaerobic turbo) sodium-potassium pump, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid in the article. Possible consequence of the wrong education – maybe – only a few people able to understand this. But nobody uses this knowledge! (Except the big food and big pharma industry – for extra-profit.) Furthermore, from the above results roughly calculable: the salted humanity squanders the energy of at least 100 million tons of food annually, to get rid of the sodium swallowed unnecessarily. We overeat (devour), we get fat, we get sick often, and we die sooner, while millions are starving on Earth.
    The blind watchmaker worked (in a continuous war against entropy law) over than 3 billion years across, while – finally he has made the man (so cruelly strong enemy is this physical law). This was our evolution, but our devolution will be much faster. And now already in one or two decades our devolution is detectable. And it will accelerate. But the correction (all) of the genetic mistakes yet only a distant aim.
    “New developments in genetics, anthropology, and neurobiology predict that a very large number of genes underlie our intellectual and emotional abilities, making these abilities genetically surprisingly fragile.”
    And our physical health also genetically fragile. But this is not a surprise, but is a fact.

  4. 4

    And 9 years later (after Osaka et al.): Ram K. Mathur: Role of diabetes, hypertension, and cigarette smoking on atherosclerosis. J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2010 Apr-Jun; 1(2): 64–68.
    From the article: “To determine the mechanism of thermogenesis, Osaka et al.[7-9] infused hypertonic solution of glucose, NaCl, … The mechanism of thermogenesis is not clear. However, it may involve intestinal osmoreceptors. … It is this thermogenesis that is responsible for the generation of atherosclerotic plaque.”
    From the end of the article: “Patients are advised to stay away from fatty foods, which obviously does not help because fatty meal is not the cause for atherosclerosis. Therefore, the researchers should first examine the cause of the disease before trying to cure it; otherwise, we will be treating symptoms rather than curing the disease itself. … Finally, this field requires some broad theories and hypotheses explaining the involvement of foods, diabetes, hypertension, cigarette smoking, and others in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. We have a mission but are lacking the vision. That is why we have not made any progress even though we have worked on it for more than 50 years.”
    In these two articles (Osaka et al. and Mathur) absolutely nothing about entropy, Na-K pump, anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid. Bad education, oblivion, or something else? 9 years and 45 years after Klahr&Bricker, and the mechanism of thermogenesis was not clear really, for the authors and editors? Or …? The floor gas (anaerobic) sodium-potassium pump devours the energy (and we produce lactic acid), but it’s not enough, and our cells are dying. We haven’t enough energy, and we haven’t enough time for the regeneration, because we enhances the entropy (by high salt intakes) in our every cells, day by day, again and again, the entropy devours our energy. All the rest of our vital processes (functional processes of the cells) receive less energy, and all of our organs and vital processes work worse (including our heart, brain, regulating systems, immune system, etc). This is responsible for the generation of atherosclerotic plaque. And this is responsible for the low physical activity. And this generates strong hunger (and thirst). We overeat and get fat. And indisputable consequence, that the unnecessarily swallowed excess sodium increases the incidence of all illnesses, without any exception, including even the genetic disorders, cancer, NCD’s and infectious diseases. Some people will be obese others not, some become diabetes others not, some have high BP others not (or later), etc. We are not totally alike, but the entropy law finds our weak point, and ravages mainly there, but increases the disorder in every cells in our body (and other risk factors affect the individual consequences).
    And now in 2014, from here:
    “Exactly how atherosclerosis begins or what causes it isn’t known, but some theories have been proposed.”
    Awesome, how may the knowledge (which was found already once or more) disappear?
    From the DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes):
    “The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for carbohydrate is set at 130 g/d for adults and children based on the average minimum amount of glucose utilized by the brain. This level of intake, however, is typically exceeded to meet energy needs while consuming acceptable intake levels of fat and protein (see Chapter 11). The median intake of carbohydrates is approximately 220 to 330 g/d for men and 180 to 230 g/d for women.”
    3-4 liters of human milk contains: 227-303 g carbohydrates, 1990-2650 kilocalories energy, 405-540 mg sodium and 1410-1880 mg potassium. Source: Yamawaki et al. 2005.
    The much sugar (and fats) or the much sodium (the sodium-induced disorder) is the reason of the diseases?
    The some decades old SETI is unsuccessful yet. If ET resembles us, he has similar problems, or he had similar problems. (Hopeless war against the entropy, devolution, overpopulation, food and energy deficiency, environmental pollution, crises, conflicts etc.) Possible, we can’t find traces and signs of extraterrestrial civilisations because the entropy destroyed them before they were able to fly to distant solar systems. If this is the truth, we must worry, because our fate will be the same. And after us, only a few lonely Voyager remains in the galaxy. We must use existing knowledges and Occam’s razor too, because statistical analyses cannot overwrite scientific laws and facts! (And the statistical data are not enough.) The race is on. We will be champions, or the entropy destroys us? I don’t know the answer, but we have little chance to win, if we nourish the entropy longer in our own body. The salted humanity – suffering from Sodium-Induced Disorder Syndrome – degenerates and will be idiotic. Together with the IQ and health, the average moral level decreases, and all this will accelerate. And this disintegrates the society. The salted road drives the humanity into anarchy, chaos and death. In the “scientific” journals is an astonishing amount of junk (results of “scientific environmental pollution” in recent five decades). If we do not eliminate the garbage now, the big cleaning will be our children’s task or our grandchildren’s task. I doubt that they will be able onto this work, because we (present scientists) appear inappropriate, already now. Wake up! If nobody knows the enemy (because it is kept secret) nobody can fight against it. And this is fatal error! I remember a DDR sci-fi book from the 70’s: Die Ohnmacht der Allmächtigen.

  5. 5
  6. 6

    Not, but unfortunately you are ignorant, than quasi everybody. And this is a consequence of astonishingly wrong education all over the world. Not my mistake, that you cannot understand the truth, though it’s not impossible. I have more and more responses to my comments on web-sites, for example here:
    “Wow, that is a LOT of crazy.”
    “How awesome to be the only one with the truth.”

  7. 7

    Completely insane it is. Good luck with that. And have some salt. Lots and lots of salt.

  8. 8

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