We make life reconstructions of dinosaurs. If you see an awesome dino in a museum, it was probably us (the crappy ones are definitely someone else). We get photos like this to work from, and sometimes we can examine the original material (always an honor and a privilege). We take measurements and make lots of boring calculations. In cases where more than one animal has been preserved, we have to consider variations from one specimen to the next. We factor in fossil evidence (the feathers can be seen and measured in well-preserved specimens), biomechanics, estimated metabolic rate, evolutionary convergence, paleoecology, and lots of other[s].
We start with a form that we hand-carve from epoxy. For these feathered guys, it looks a lot like a plucked chicken. The methods are very similar to human forensic reconstruction. We add muscle, connective tissue, fat, and skin to the bones. Then we start adding feathers. We start at the tail and work our way forward, attaching them one at a time, sort of like roof tiles. At this point, the body, wings, feet, toes, and head are all separate pieces.
The colors and pose are chosen by the client, from 3 or 4 concept drawings that we provide. This guy was designed after a red-wing blackbird. Those two long (13″) display feathers are preserved in the fossil, as you can see in the first image. Trade secret how we managed to make them!
Finished Confuciusornis! This represents about 200 hours of work, and thousands of individual feathers. One by one. We’re a tiny operation–there’s only two of us here, myself and the owner. After spending so much time with the little guys, you tend to get attached to them. But off he goes to South Korea’s natural history museum!
[Confuciusornis was a primitive, bird-like creature which inhabited today’s China from 125 to 120 million years ago. It is one of the most well preserved fossils in the area, with a few hundred complete specimens found to date]
Measure, calculate, carve.
There are countless little “tricks” to doing this. Different feathers behave and need to be used differently. You select each individual feather to go in a specific spot, and you get really upset if you drop or lose the “perfect” one. I make marks and keep the concept drawing close by so I don’t forget what I’m doing with the design. No toes, arms, or head yet.
The shop turns into a major disaster area. There are feathers everywhere; in your clothes, your eyes, your nose, and your food. There’s no escape. I once discovered one of those “perfect” feathers that I had lost in my shirt when I went to take a shower. I brought it back to use the next day. (You start to go a little insane.) We made two of these in a row. This was the first…
[Sinosauropteryx was the first dinosaur taxon outside of Avialae (birds and their immediate relatives) to be found with evidence of feathers. It was covered with a coat of very simple filament-like feathers. It was quite small, with the largest specimen measuring 1.07 metres (3.5 feet) in length, with an estimated weight of 0.55 kilograms (1.2 pounds). It lived during the early Cretaceous, approximately 124 million years ago].
Caudipteryx fossil. Measure, calculate, sculpt.
Looking a little raggedy. We were playing with the colors on the beak. I hated that bright yellow. And yes, he’s as soft as he looks. They’re fully pet-able, and it’s actually good for the feathers to touch them. Keeps them oiled and in good shape.
Look at its tongue!
[Caudipteryx also lived some 124 million years ago. They were feathered and remarkably birdlike in their overall appearance, even though they exhibited both bird and dinosaur features.]
Bonus: Dino dog!
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This is Ollie the Wonder Dog giving us critique on a Cosmosaurus cast.
Copyright 2014 ZME Science
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